1. Which of the following correctly describe steps in the OSI data encapsulation process? (Choose two)
A. The transport layer divides a data stream into segments and may add reliability and flow control information.
B. The data link layer adds physical source and destination addresses and an FCS to the segment.
C. Packets are created when the network layer encapsulates a frame with source and destination host addresses and protocol-related control information.
D. Packets are created when the network layer adds Layer 3 addresses and control information to a segment.
E. The presentation layer translates bits into voltages for transmission across the physical link.
Answer: A D
The transport layer segments data into smaller pieces for transport. Each segment is assigned a sequence number, so that the receiving device can reassemble the data on arrival.
The transport layer also use flow control to maximize the transfer rate while minimizing the requirements to retransmit. For example, in TCP, basic flow control is implemented by acknowledgment by the receiver of the receipt of data; the sender waits for this acknowledgment before sending the next part.
The Network layer (Layer 3) has two key responsibilities. First, this layer controls the logical addressing of devices. Second, the network layer determines the best path to a particular destination network, and routes the data appropriately.
2. Which layer of the OSI reference model uses the hardware address of a device to ensure message delivery to the proper host on a LAN?
B. data link
The hardware address of a device or the Media Access Control (MAC) address is added in the Data Link layer. An Ethernet MAC address is a 48-bit binary value expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits (for example: 00:15:A4:CB:03:CA).
3. Which layer of the OSI reference model uses flow control, sequencing, and acknowledgments to ensure that reliable networking occurs?
A. data link
4. Which layer in the OSI reference model is responsible for determining the availability of the receiving program and checking to see if enough resources exist for that communication?
5. Data transfer is slow between the source and destination. The quality of service requested by the transport layer in the OSI reference model is not being maintained. To fix this issue, at which layer should the troubleshooting process begin?
6. Which protocols are found in the network layer of the OSI reference model and are responsible for path determination and traffic switching?
7. Refer to the exhibit. An administrator pings the default gateway at 10.10.10.1 and sees the output as shown. At which OSI layer is the problem?
C:\> ping 10.10.10.1
Pinging 10.10.10.1 with 32 bytes of data:
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Ping statistics for 10.10.10.1:
Packets: sent – 4, Received = 0, Lost – 4 (100% loss)
A. data link layer
B. application layer
C. access layer
D. session layer
E. network layer
The Network layer is responsible for network addressing and routing through the internetwork. So a ping fails, you may have an issue with the Network layer (although lower layers like Data Link & Physical may cause the problem).
8. Which of the following are types of flow control? (Choose three)
D. congestion avoidance
E. load balancing
Answer: A C D
Three types of flow control are buffering, windowing & congestion avoidance:
+ Buffering: If a device receives packets too quickly for it to handle then it can store them in a memory section called a buffer and proceed them later.
+ Windowing: a window is the quantity of data segments that the transmitting device is allowed to send without receiving an acknowledgment for them. For example:
With the window size of 1, the sending device sends 1 segment and the receiving device must reply with 1 ACK before the sending device can send the next segment. This “waiting” takes some time.
By increasing the window size to 3, the sending device will send up to 3 segments before waiting an ACK -> helps reduce the waiting time.
+ Congestion avoidance: lower-priority traffic can be discarded when the network is overloaded -> minimize delays.
9. A network administrator is verifying the configuration of a newly installed host by establishing an FTP connection to a remote server. What is the highest layer of the protocol stack that the network administrator is using for this operation?
F. data link
FTP belongs to Application layer and it is also the highest layer of the OSI model.
10. A receiving host computes the checksum on a frame and determines that the frame is damaged. The frame is then discarded. At which OSI layer did this happen?
D. data link
When using the term “frame” we can easily recognize it belongs to the Data Link layer. In this layer, an Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field is added to the frame to verify that the frame data is received correctly.
11. As a frame leaves a Layer 3 device, the Layer 2 encapsulation information is changed from what it was when it entered the device. For what two reasons can this happen? (Choose two)
A. The data is moving from 10BASE-TX to 100BASE-TX.
B. The WAN encapsulation type has changed.
C. The data format has changed from analog to digital.
D. The source and destination hosts are in the same subnet.
E. The source and destination MAC addresses have changed.
Answer: B E
12. Acknowledgement, Sequencing, and Flow control are characteristics of which OSI layer?
A. Layer 2
B. Layer 3
C. Layer 4
D. Layer 5
E. Layer 6
F. Layer 7
13. An inbound access list has been configured on a serial interface to deny packet entry for TCP and UDP ports 21, 23 and 25. What types of packets will be permitted by this ACL? (Choose three)
Answer: D E F
The access list denies packet entry for TCP & UDP -> all the services on ports 21, 23 and 25 are disabled. Services on these ports are FTP (port 21), Telnet (port 23), SMTP (port 25). Other services are allowed so D E F are the correct answers.
14. What are two characteristics of Telnet? (Choose two)
A. It sends data in clear text format.
B. It is no longer supported on Cisco network devices.
C. It is more secure than SSH.
D. It requires an enterprise license in order to be implemented.
E. It requires that the destination device be configured to support Telnet connections.
Answer: A E
Telnet, part of the TCP/IP protocol suite, is a virtual terminal protocol that allows you to make connections to remote devices, gather information, and run programs. Telnet is considered insecure because it transfers all data in clear text -> A is correct.
The destination device needs to support Telnet connection. For example, if a device doesn’t support TCP/IP protocol suit then maybe we can’t telnet to it.
15. An administrator issues the command ping 127.0.0.1 from the command line prompt on a PC. If a reply is received, what does this confirm?
A. The PC has connectivity with a local host.
B. The PC has connectivity with a Layer 3 device.
C. The PC has a default gateway correctly configured
D. The PC has connectivity up to Layer 5 of the OSI model
E. The PC has the TCP/IP protocol stack correctly installed.
The address 127.0.0.1 is called loopback address. When we ping 127.0.0.1, in fact we are pinging the local network card and test the TCP/IP protocol suite on our device.
16. Where does routing occur within the DoD TCP/IP reference model?
17. A host is attempting to send data to another host on a different network. What is the first action that the sending host will take?
A. Drop the data.
B. Send the data frames to the default gateway.
C. Create an ARP request to get a MAC address for the receiving host.
D. Send a TCP SYN and wait for the SYN ACK with the IP address of the receiving host.
Before sending data, the sending host checks if the destination host is inside or outside the local network. If it is outside the local network, the data will be sent to the default gateway.
18. What is the purpose using the traceroute command?
A. to map all the devices on a network.
B. to display the current TCP/IP configuration values.
C. to see how a device MAC address is mapped to its IP address.
D. to see the path a packet will take when traveling to a specified destination.
E. to display the MTU values for each router in a specified network path from source to a destination.
19. A network admin wants to know every hop the packets take when he accesses cisco.com. Which command is the most appropriate to use?
A. path cisco.com
C. trace cisco.com
D. traceroute cisco.com
20. A TCP/IP Transfer is diagrammed in the exhibit.
A window size of three has been negotiated for this transfer. Which message will be returned from the receiver to the sender as part of this TCP/IP transfer?
A. Send ACK 1-3
B. Send ACK 3
C. Send ACK 4
D. Send ACK 4-6
E. Send ACK 6
F. Send ACK 7
In response, the receiver replies with an ACK. The acknowledgment number is set to one more than the received sequence number. The ACK means “I have got all messages up to sequence number n-1 so please send me the message for sequence number n”.
21. Refer to the exhibit. Host A pings Host B. What source MAC address and source IP address are contained in the frame as the frame leaves R2 destined for host B?
Answer: B D
When packets are sent from Host A to Host B, the source and destination IP addresses are never changed and they are the IP addresses of Host A & Host B. Only the MAC addresses will be changed to reflect the device of the current network. In this case, when the frame leaves R2 destined for host B. It will have:
+ Source IP: IP of Host A – 10.2.0.15 (never changed)
+ Destination IP: IP of Host B – 10.0.128.15 (never changed)
+ Source MAC: MAC of Fa0/0 of R2 – abcd.abcd.b002
+ Destination MAC: MAC of Host B – abcd.abcd.d004
22. Host 1 is trying to communicate with Host 2. The e0 interface on Router C is down. Which of the following are true? (Choose two)
A. Router C will use ICMP to inform Host 1 that Host 2 cannot be reached.
B. Router C will use ICMP to inform Router B that Host 2 cannot be reached.
C. Router C will use ICMP to inform Host 1, Router A, and Router B that Host 2 cannot be reached.
D. Router C will send a Destination Unreachable message type.
E. Router C will send a Router Selection message type.
F. Router C will send a Source Quench message type.
Answer: A D
The last known good router will try to inform you that the destination cannot be reached (with a Destination Unreachable message type) so from that information you can learn how far your packets can travel to and where the problem is.
23. Refer to the exhibit. The switch in the graphic has a default configuration and the MAC table is fully populated. In addition, this network is operating properly. The graphic represents selected header information in a frame leaving host A. What can be concluded from this information?
A. The MAC address of host A is FFFF.FFFF.FFFF.
B. The router will forward the packet in this frame to the Internet.
C. The switch will only forward this frame to the attached router interface.
D. All devices in this LAN except host A will pass the packet to Layer 3.
This frame is leaving host A so host A is the source of this frame. In this frame, the MAC destination is FFFF.FFFF.FFFF which is a broadcast address so Sw1 will flood this frame out all its ports except the port it received the frame -> Hosts B, C, D and the interface connected to Sw1 on R1 will receive this frame. When receiving this frame, they will pass the packet to Layer 3 (because they consider broadcast address “everyone, including me”). At Layer 3, the Destination IP will be checked and only the host (or the interface on the router) with correct IP will respond to Host A while others keep silence -> D is correct.
Just for your information, maybe you can ask “this is a broadcast message so why router R1 doesn’t drop it?”. Suppose this is an ARP Request message. In fact, R1 drops that packet but it also learns that it is an ARP Request so R1 looks up its routing table to find a route to that destination. If it can find one, it will send an ARP Reply back for host A”.