CCNA 640-802: Cisco IOS

1. When you are logged into a switch, which prompt indicates that you are in privileged mode?

A. %
B. @
C. >
D. $
E. #

Answer: E

Explanation
The “#” (like Switch#) indicates you are in privileged mode while the “>” indicates you are in user mode.

Note: The “#” sign in “Switch(config)#” indicates this is only accessible at privileged EXEC mode. The “(config)#” part indicates we are in configuration mode.

2. Which command is used to copy the configuration from RAM into NVRAM?

A. copy running-config startup-config
B. copy startup-config: running-config:
C. copy running config startup config
D. copy startup config running config
E. write terminal

Answer: A

Explanation
The running-config is saved in RAM while the startup-config is saved in NVRAM. So in order to copy the configuration from RAM into NVRAM we use the command “copy running-config startup-config” (syntax: copy).

3. Which command is used to load a configuration from a TFTP server and merge the configuration into RAM?

A. copy running-config: TFTP:
B. copy TFTP: running-config
C. copy TFTP: startup-config
D. copy startup-config: TFTP:

Answer: B

Explanation
The syntax of the copy command is “copy” so to copy a configuration from a TFTP server into RAM we use the command “copy TFTP: running-config”.

4. There are no boot system commands in a router configuration in NVRAM. What is the fallback sequence that router will use to find an IOS during reload?

A. Flash, TFTP server, ROM
B. Flash, NVRAM, ROM
C. ROM, NVRAM, TFTP server
D. NVRAM, TFTP server, ROM
E. TFTP server, Flash, NVRAM

Answer: A

Explanation
When you turn the router on, it runs through the following boot process.

The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router’s hardware. When the POST completes successfully, the System OK LED indicator comes on.
The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. A setting of 0×2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. If the startup-config file is missing or does not specify a location, it will check the following locations for the IOS image:

1. Flash (the default location)
2. TFTP server
3. ROM (used if no other source is found)

The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router). The router can load a configuration file from:

+ NVRAM (startup-configuration file)
+ TFTP server
If a configuration file is not found, the router starts in setup mode.

5. A Cisco router is booting and has just completed the POST process.It is now ready to find and load an IOS image. What function does the router perform next?

A. It checks the configuration register
B. It attempts to boot from a TFTP server
C. It loads the first image file in flash memory
D. It inspects the configuration file in NVRAM for boot instructions

Answer: A

6. Refer to the partial command output shown. Which two statements are correct regarding the router hardware? (Choose two)

————————————————————————————–
system image file is “flash:c2600-do3s-mz.120-5.T1″

Cisco 2621 (MPC860) processor (revision 0×600) with 53248K/12288K bytes of memory
Processor board ID JAD05280307 (3536592999)
M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49
Bridging software.
X.25 software, version 3.0.0.
2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
2 Serial(sync/async) network interface(s)
2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) network interface(s)
16 terminal line(s)

32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
16384K bytes of processor board system flash (Read/Write)
————————————————————————————–

A. Total RAM size is 32 KB
B. Total RAM size is 16384 KB (16 MB)
C. Total RAM size is 65536 KB (64 MB)
D. Flash size is 32 KB
E. Flash size is 16384 KB (16 MB).
F. Flash size is 65536 KB (64 MB)

Answer: C E

Explanation:
The line “Cisco 2621 (MPC860) processor (revision 0×600) with 53248K/12288K bytes of memory” tells how much RAM in your router. The first parameter (53248) specifies how much Dynamic RAM (DRAM) in your router while the second parameter (12288K) indicates how much DRAM is being used for Packet memory (used by incoming and outgoing packets) in your router. Therefore you have to add both numbers to find the amount of DRAM available on your router

The flash size is straightforward from the line “16384K bytes of processor board system flash (Read/Write)”

7. Which router IOS commands can be used to troubleshoot LAN connectivity problems? (Choose three)

A. ping
B. tracert
C. ipconfig
D. show ip route
E. winipcfg
F. show interfaces

Answer: A D F

Explanation
The ping command can be used to test if the local device can reach a specific destination.

“tracert” is not a valid command in Cisco IOS commands, the correct command should be “traceroute”.

The ipconfig command is not a valid command in Cisco IOS too.

The “show ip route” command can be used to view the routing table of the router. It is a very useful command to find out many connectivity problems (like directly connected networks, learned network via routing protocols…).

“winipcfg” is an old tool in Windows 95/98 to view IP settings of the installed network interfaces. But it is not a valid command in Cisco IOS commands.

The “show interfaces” command is used to check all the interfaces on the local device only. It has very limited information to trouble LAN connectivity problem but it is the most reasonable to choose.

8. Which two locations can be configured as a source for the IOS image in the boot system command? (Choose two)

A. RAM
B. NVRAM
C. flash memory
D. HTTP server
E. TFTP server
F. Telnet server

Answer: C E

9. Refer to the exhibit. Why is flash memory erased prior to upgrading the IOS image from the TFTP server?

————————————————————————————–
Router# copy tftp flash
Address or name of remote host []? 192.168.2.167
Source filename []? c1600-k8sy-mz.123-16a.bin
Destination filename [c1600-k8sy-mz.123-16a.bin]?
Accessing tftp://192.168.2.167/ c1600-k8sy-mz.l23-16a.bin…
Erasing flash before copying? [confirm]
Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! continue? [confirm]
Erasing device
Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee
Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee …erased
Erase of flash: complete
Loading c1600-k8sy-mz.l23-16a.bin from 192.168.2.167 (via Ethernet0):
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
[OK – 6888962/13777920 bytes]

verifying checksum… OK (0x7BF3)
6888962 bytes copied in 209.920 secs (32961 bytes/sec)
Router#
————————————————————————————–

A. The router cannot verify that the Cisco IOS image currently in flash is valid
B. Flash memory on Cisco routers can contain only a single IOS image.
C. Erasing current flash content is requested during the copy dialog.
D. In order for the router to use the new image as the default, it must be the only IOS image in flash.

Answer: C

Explanation
During the copy process, the router asked “Erasing flash before copying? [confirm]” and the administrator confirmed (by pressing Enter) so the flash was deleted.

Note: In this case, the flash has enough space to copy a new IOS without deleting the current one. The current IOS is deleted just because the administrator wants to do so. If the flash does not have enough space you will see an error message like this:

%Error copying tftp://192.168.2.167/ c1600-k8sy-mz.l23-16a.bin (Not enough space on device)

10. Which command reveals the last method used to powercycle a router?

A. show reload
B. show boot
C. show running-config
D. show version

Answer: D

11, Refer to the exhibit. A router boots to the prompt shown in the exhibit. What does this signify, and how should the network administrator respond?

rommon 1>

A. This prompt signifies that the configuration file was not found in NVRAM. The network administrator should follow the prompts to enter a basic configuration.
B. The prompt signifies that the configuration file was not found in flash memory. The network administrator should use TFTP to transfer a configuration file to the router.
C. The prompt signifies that the IOS image in flash memory is invalid or corrupted. The network administrator should use TFTP to transfer an IOS image to the router.
D. The prompt signifies that the router could not authenticate the user. The network administrator should modify the IOS image and reboot the router.

Answer: C

Explanation
If a Cisco router boots in ROMmon mode, it means:

+ The value of the configuration register is set to XXX0 (the boot field – fourth bit – is 0)
+ The router is unable to locate a valid Cisco IOS software image (you can use the “dir flash:” command in ROMmon mode to look for the IOS in the Flash then try to boot that flash with the “boot flash:” command).

If the IOS image is invalid or corrupted, the fastest way to re-install a new Cisco IOS software image on the router is to copy a new one from TFTP (with “tftpdnld” command).

12. What should be done prior to backing up an IOS image to a TFTP server? (Choose three)

A. Make sure that the server can be reached across the network.
B. Check that authentication for TFTP access to the server is set.
C. Assure that the network server has adequate space for the IOS image.
D. Verify file naming and path requirements.
E. Make sure that the server can store binary files.
F. Adjust the TCP window size to speed up the transfer.

Answer: A C D

13. Which two privileged mode cisco ios commands can be used to determine a cisco router chassis serial number? (choose two)

A. show inventory
B. show flash filesys
C. dir flash:|include chassis
D. show diag
E. show controllers

Answer: A D

14. Which command helps a network administrator to manage memory by displaying flash memory and NVRAM utilization?

A. show secure
B. show file systems
C. show flash
D. show version

Answer: B

15. A network administrator changes the configuration register to 0×2142 and reboots the router. What are two results of making this change? (Choose two)

A. The IOS image will be ignored.
B. The router will prompt to enter initial configuration mode.
C. The router will boot to ROM.
D. Any configuration entries in NVRAM will be ignored.
E. The configuration in flash memory will be booted.

Answer: B D

Explanation
The router bypasses the startup configuration stored in NVRAM during its boot sequence so the router will enter initial configuration mode. This feature is normally used during a password recovery procedure.

16. Refer to the exhibit. For what two reasons has the router loaded its IOS image from the location that is shown? (Choose two)

————————————————————————————
Router1> show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS ™ 7200 Software (C7200-J-M), Experimental Version 11.3tl997091S:1647S2)
[hampton-nitro-baseline 249]
Copyright (c) 1986-1997 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Wed 08-0ct-97 06:39 by hampton
Image text-base: 0×60008900, data-base: 0x60B98000

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(11855) [beta 2], INTERIM SOFTWARE
BOOTPLASH: 7200 Software (C7200-BOOT-M), Version 11.1(472), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fcl)

Router1 uptime is 23 hours, 33 minutes
System restarted by abort at PC 0x6022322C at 10:50:SS PDT Tue Oct 21 1997
System image file is “tftp://112.16.1.129/hampton/nitro/c7200-j-mz”

cisco 7206 (NPE150) processor with 57344K/8192K bytes of memory.

Configuration register is 0×2102
————————————————————————————

A. Router1 has specific boot system command that instruct it to load IOS from TFTP server.
B. Router1 is acting as a TFTP server for other routers.
C. Router1 cannot locate a valid IOS image in flash memory.
D. Router1 defaulted to ROMMON mode and loaded the IOS image from a TFTP sewer.
E. Cisco routers will first attempt to load a image from TFTP for management purposes.

Answer: A C

Explanation
When powered on, the router first checks its hardware via Power-On Self Test (POST). Then it checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. In the output above we learn that the Configuration register value is 0×2102 so the router will try to boot the system image from Flash memory first.

But we also see a line “System image file is “tftp://112.16.1.129/hampton/nitro/c7200-j-mz”. Please notice that this line tells us the image file that the device last started. In this case it is from a TFTP server. Therefore we can deduce that the router could not load the IOS image from the flash and the IOS image has been loaded from TFTP server.

Note:
If the startup-config file is missing or does not specify a location, it will check the following locations for the IOS image:

+ Flash (the default location)
+ TFTP server
+ ROM (used if no other source is found)

17. How does using the service password encryption command on a router provide additional security?

A. by encrypting all passwords passing through the router
B. by encrypting passwords in the plain text configuration file
C. by requiring entry of encrypted passwords for access to the device
D. by configuring an MD5 encrypted key to be used by routing protocols to validate routing exchanges
E. by automatically suggesting encrypted passwords for use in configuring the router

Answer: B

Explanation

By using this command, all the (current and future) passwords are encrypted. This command is primarily useful for keeping unauthorized individuals from viewing your password in your configuration file.

18. Refer to the diagram. What is the largest configuration file that can be stored on this router?

————————————————————————————————
R# show version
Cisco IOS Software. 1841 Software (C1841-IPBASE-M}, Version 12.4(1a), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986*2005 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 27-May-0512:32 by hqluong

ROM: System Bootstrap. Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

N-East uptime is 5 days, 49 minutes
System returned to ROM by reload at 15:17:00 UTC Thu Jun 8 2006
System image file is “flash:c1841-ipbase-mz.124-1a.bin”

Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID FTX0932W21Y
2 FastEthernet interfaces
2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) interfaces
DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.
191K bytes of NVRAM.
31360K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)

Configuration register Is 0×2102

R#
————————————————————————————————

A. 191K bytes
B. 16384K bytes
C. 31369K bytes
D. 114688K bytes

Answer: A

Explanation
Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) holds the router’s startup configuration file. NVRAM contents are not lost when the router is powered down or reloaded.

19. Which command shows system hardware and software version information?

A. show configuration
B. show environment
C. show inventory
D. show platform
E. show version

Answer: E

20. Refer to the exhibit. If number 2 is selected from the setup script, what happens when the user runs setup from a privileged prompt?

————————————————————————————————
[0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config.
[1] Return back to the setup without saving this config.
[2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit.

Enter your selection [2]:
————————————————————————————————

A. Setup is additive and any changes will be added to the config script.
B. Setup effectively starts the configuration over as if the router was booted for the first time.
C. Setup will not run if an enable secret password exists on the router.
D. Setup will not run, because it is only viable when no configuration exists on the router.

Answer: A

21. Which command shows your active Telnet connections?

A. show sessions
B. show cdp neighbors
C. show users
D. show queue

Answer: A

22. Which command can you use to determine the cisco ios feature set on a cisco router?

A. show version
B. dir flash:include ios
C. show environment
D. show diag
E. show inventory

Answer: A

23. A system administrator types the command to change the hostname of a router. Where on the Cisco IFS is that change stored?

A. NVRAM
B. RAM
C. FLASH
D. ROM
E. PCMCIA

Answer: B

Explanation

The change is only reflected in the running-config on RAM. It can be lost if we reset the router without saving it.

24. Before installing a new upgraded version of the IOS, what should be checked on the router, and which command should be used to gather this information? (Choose two)

A. the amount of available ROM
B. the amount of available flash and RAM memory
C. the version of the bootstrap software present on the router
D. show version
E. show processes
F. show running-config

Answer: B D

Explanation
When upgrading new version of the IOS we need to copy the IOS to the Flash so first we have to check if the Flash has enough memory or not. Also running the new IOS may require more RAM than the older one so we should check the available RAM too. We can check both with the “show version” command.

25. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator configures a new router and enters the copy startup-config running-config on the router. The network administrator powers down the router and sets it up at a remote location. When the router starts, it enter the system configuration dialog as shown. What is the cause of the problem?

————————————————————————————————

— System Configuration Dialog —
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: % Please answer yes’ or ‘no’.
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/ho]: n

Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:

Press RETURN to get started!

————————————————————————————————

A. The network administrator failed to save the configuration.
B. The configuration register is set to 0×2100.
C. The boot system flash command is missing from the configuration.
D. The configuration register is set to 0×2102.
E. The router is configured with the boot system startup command.

Answer: A

Explanation
The “System Configuration Dialog” appears only when no startup configuration file is found. The network administrator has made a mistake because the command “copy startup-config running-config” will copy the startup config (which is empty) over the running config (which is configured by the administrator). So everything configured was deleted.

26. Refer to the exhibit. What can be determined about the router from the console output?

————————————————————————————————

1 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
125K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
65536K bytes of ATA PCMCIA card at slot 0 (Sector size 512 bytes) .
8192K bytes of Flash internal SIMM (Sector size 256K).

———-System Configuration Dialog ———-

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

————————————————————————————————

A. No configuration file was found in NVRAM.
B. No configuration file was found in flash.
C. No configuration file was found in the PCMCIA card.
D. Configuration file is normal and will load in 15 seconds.

Answer: A

Explanation
When no startup configuration file is found in NVRAM, the System Configuration Dialog will appear to ask if we want to enter the initial configuration dialog or not.

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